Sunday, 14 August 2011

The Sun / Matahari / Seng nGey nGey

The Sun
�� The Sun is the largest object and contains approximately 99.8% of the total of the mass of the Solar System.
Characteristics of the Sun
�� Age : 4.5 billion years
�� Shape : Spherical
�� Diameter : 1 390 000 km
�� Mass : 1.989 x 1034 kg
�� Mean density : 1.410 gm/cm^3
�� Gravity : 28 x gravity on Earth
�� Mean surface temperature : 6 000°C
�� Principal chemistry
�� Hydrogen : 70 %
�� Helium : 28%
�� All others : 2%
Structure of the Sun
�� The Sun atmosphere has several layers

�� The photosphere is the compact layer of gas seen to be shining with yellow light from earth
�� This layer is responsible for radiating heat and light from the Sun
�� It temperature is approximately 6 000°C
�� The chromosphere is an irregular layer lies above the photosphere
�� It temperature rises from 10 000 °C and 500 000°C
�� It reddish can be seen during a total solar eclipse
�� The corona is the outer layer of the Sun
�� It extends far out into space and is very hot
�� It temperature is about 1.5 million °C

Phenomena on the Sun’s surface and their effects

�� Sunspots is a dark and cool regions that appear on the photosphere


�� Prominences are huge clouds of gases which rise from chromosphere
�� It can last two to three months
�� It can extend approximately 50 000 km above the sun’s surface

Solar flare
�� Solar flares are tremendous explosions on the surface of the Sun
�� Solar flares directly affect the ionosphere and radio communication on Earth

Refresh Refresh
�� The Sun warms our planet, provides the light to and also necessary for
life on earth
�� The Sun is 150 million km far away from Earth
�� Sunspots always appear in pairs
�� Prominences are usually associated with sunspots activity
�� Solar flares can cause electrical power outages and damaged
communication satellites
�� Aurora is the phenomenon that cause the sky near the poles to become
�� Solar wind is a constant flow of plasma expanding from the corona

The Milky Way

The Universe
�� The Universe contains all of the galaxies, stars and planets
�� The exact size of the Universe is unknown
The Milky Way
�� The Milky Way is the galaxy which is the home of our solar system
�� Our solar system is thus situated within the outer regions of this galaxy
�� The Milky Way contains about 200 billion stars

Galaxies /Galaksi

�� A galaxy is made of billions of stars, dust and gas all held together by gravity
�� Galaxies are scattered throughout the universe and they are vary in size
�� Galaxies can be classified according to their appearance and shape.

�� Spiral galaxies usually is shaped like a disk that tends to
resemble a whirlpool or pinwheel
�� It contains a lot of dark dust clouds and young star cluster

�� Elliptical galaxies are actually of ellipsoidal shape
�� Normally, elliptical galaxies contain very little gas, dust and older stars

�� Irregular galaxies has an undefined shape
�� It is full of dust, gas and young star

Monday, 1 August 2011

9.4 Al-Buruj.

9.4 Bintang Dan Buruj / Stars and constellations

BURUJ adalah sekumpulan BINTANG yang membentuk corak tertentu di langit.
Apabila garis-gsris gambaran dilukis untuk menyambungkan sekumpulan bintang tertentu, yang cerah dilangit, corak-corak tertentu terhasil.
Buruj BIDUK (URSA MAJOR) di Kutub Utara dan Buruj PARI (SOUTHERN CROSS)di Kutub Selatan merupkan sekumpulan bintang yang cerah dan dapat dilihat sepanjang tahun.
Pada zaman dahulu, buruj digunakan sebagai KOMPAS dan KALENDAR

Stars and constellations
The SUN is the closest star to the Earth.
The distance between the stars and the Earth is measured in light years.
The hottest stars are blue in colour while the coolest stars are red.
A STAR is a natural object in the outer space that gives out heat and light.
Sirius and Rigel are examples of bright stars in the sky.
A star produces energy through nuclear reactions.
A constellation is a group of stars that forms a specifi c pattern in the sky.

Bintang Dan Buruj
MATAHARI ialah bintang yang paling hampir dengan Bumi.
Jarak bintang dari Bumi diukur dalam unit Tahun Cahaya.
Bintang yang paling panas berwarna BIRU manakala bintang yang paling sejuk
berwarna MERAH .
BINTANG ialah objek semula jadi di angkasa lepas yang membebaskan tenaga haba dan
Sirius dan Rigel ialah contoh bintang yang CERAH di langit.
Bintang menghasilkan tenaga melalui Tindakbalas Nuklear.
BURUJ ialah sekumpulan bintang yang membentuk corak tertentu di langit

Pada zaman dahulu, buruj digunakan sebagai KOMPAS dan KALENDAR
Buruj Biduk Arah UTARA / Ursa Major NORTH

Buruj Pari Arah Selatan / Southen Cross

9.5 Comparing stars based on temperature and size/ Perbandingan bintang berdasarkan suhu dan saiz

The colour of a star depends on its Temperature.
A star with a low temperature or which is the coolest is in RED colour.
The hottest stars are in BLUE colour.

Warna bintang bergantung pada SUHUNYA.
Bintang yang mempunyai suhu yang sangat rendah atau paling sejuk berwarna MERAH.
Bintang yang paling panas berwarna BIRU.

Warna bintang Suhu permukaan (°C)
Biru 40 000
Biru keputihan 10 000
Kuning 6 000
Merah 3 000

9.6 The Birth of Star / Kelahiran Bintang

The Birth of Star
Gases in a nebula are pulled by strong forces of gravity.
A core that is very hot and dense is formed. The core becomes hotter until hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium atoms. Nuclear reactions take place. A lot of heat and light energy is released. A star is formed

Kelahiran Bintang
Gas-gas dalam Nabula ditarik oleh daya tarikan graviti
yang kuat. Teras yang sangat panas dan padat akan terbentuk.
Teras menjadi semakin panas sehingga atom hidrogen berpadu
membentuk atom helium. Tindak balas nuklear berlaku.
Banyak tenaga haba dan cahaya dibebaskan. Bintang dilahirkan.